Brazil-life-expectancy

Brazil life expectancy: social improvements

The life expectancy of the Brazilian reached the highest average in history. Projection released this Wednesday (25/7) by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) shows that the longevity has reached 76 years. A jump of 22 years compared to the registered in the 1960s, for example, when the average reached 54. Brazil reached the mark of 208.4 million inhabitants in 2018, according to IBGE estimate released on Wednesday ( 24/7).

learning portuguese

What Language is spoken in Brazil? Learn here!

One of the trends that most attracted IBGE’s attention is the slowing of population growth. In 2018, the country arrived. 208.4 million people. Increase of 0.38% – 800 thousand people – in relation to the contingent of 2017, when it was 207.6 million. From 2016 to 2017, growth had been 1.6 million people, double that from the passage from 2017 to 2018.

IBGE estimates that the Brazilian population will grow for the next 29 years, until 2047, when it is expected to reach 233.2 million. In the following years, the population will fall to 228.3 million in 2060. Reduced fertility, late pregnancy and a decline in the ratio of the elderly to the young are among the reasons.

By 2060, the population over 60 years old will more than double in size and reach 32.1% of the total population. Currently, it represents 13.44%. By 2060, a quarter (25%) of the population will be over 65 – the expectation of cida will be 81 years. The opposite occurs in the population of children up to 14 years of age, which currently represents 21.3% of the total and in 2060 will represent 14.7%.

What will be the life expectancy of the Brazilians in 2040?

What will be the life expectancy of the Brazilians in 2040?

How old is an average person? This response varies drastically according to where she lives. While the population of Japan, the world’s longest living place, reaches 83, the inhabitants of the Central African Republic do not survive for more than five decades.

“Considering that life expectancy is a sensitive indicator of health conditions, we face brutal differences according to each region,” says Dr. Rafael Lozano of the University of Washington in the United States.

The researcher is one of the authors of the work that evaluated parameters and statistics country by country and presented how the life expectancy should evolve until 2040. The tendency is that the Spaniards, currently the rooms placed, surpass the Japanese in the lead of the ranking in the near future .

“From the data, it is possible that politicians and public agents devise strategies to establish improvements that directly benefit the people,” Lozano believes.

While the first positions are occupied by Europeans and Asians, the last places are with Africa. The difference in life expectancy across continents is over 30 years.

Brazil life expectancy: in the middle of the table

Brazil life expectancy in 2040
(Illustration: André Moscatelli/SAÚDE é Vital)

In 81st place Brazil are behind El Salvador and Venezuela and ahead of Lithuania and Romania. The life expectancy here should increase three years and three months until 2040.

The study calculated the best and worst case scenarios for each country. If it works out and Brazil evolves a lot, we can reach 82.6 years in 2040 – an incredible leap of more than seven years. Now, in case everything goes wrong, the tendency is to retraction to 74.9 years, three months less than we enjoy today.

Searching for the best scenario for life expectancy

There is no other way: for people to celebrate more and more birthdays, it is necessary to invest heavily in education and health (eating healthy brazilian recipes should help too). “It is also necessary to have organized and effective responses to some events of great impact, such as demographic shocks, epidemics or hunger,” exemplifies Lozano.

Authorities still need to keep an eye on chronic diseases that are booming, such as hypertension and diabetes. “They will represent the main risks in some cases,” says the expert.

The 10 biggest causes of death in Brazil in 2016

  1. Infarction
  2. Stroke (stroke)
  3. Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias
  4. Pneumonia
  5. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  6. Violence
  7. Diabetes
  8. Traffic-accidents
  9. Chronic Kidney Disease
  10. Lung and tracheal cancer

What will be the biggest causes of death in Brazil in 2040

  1. Infarction
  2. Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias
  3. Diabetes
  4. Stroke (stroke)
  5. Pneumonia
  6. Chronic Kidney Disease
  7. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  8. Hypertension
  9. Prostate cancer
  10. Colorectal cancer
what-is-the-capital-of-brazil

What is the capital of Brazil?

Brasília, the capital of Brazil, counts on important characteristics not only because of all political issues, because it is the space of great discussions and governmental decisions, but also because it is a space that has a super interesting space organization, a totally planned place and organized for certain purposes.

learning portuguese

With this, its history, economy and tourism aspects reflect well the complexity and importance of Capital in the national scenario.

Brasília, the official capital of Brazil

Located in the Central Brazilian Plateau, in the Center-West region of the country, specifically in the Federal District, the capital of Brazil is located in a region that for many years was occupied until the nationalist projects of expansion of occupations in the territory began to create development of those regions of the country that still needed infrastructure and investments, as well as people occupying these regions and helping in development.

In 1960, the Federal Capital of Brazil, Brasília was inaugurated by the then president Juscelino Kubitschek. The construction of all Brasília took about three and a half years and it was built from a modern urban system, different from the architecture patterns of Brazil at the time.

Economy in the Brazilian capital

The particularities of the capital not only stop in its modern urban project, but also extends in every economic context. As a good example of this, the GDP, Gross Domestic Product of the city of Brasília is six times larger than that of Maranhão, which demonstrates all the economic and social development of the Brazilian capital.

Brazil life expectancy.

Thus, as HDI, the Human Development Index of Brasília, which is high, demonstrating that its population presents a good life condition.

Trade in the capital

As early as its inauguration year, in 1960, Brasília already had a well-developed commercial sector, especially in comparison to the rest of the country. This development is also related to the development of the capital of Brazil and the whole region, with the existence of roads and railways, which made production more dynamic and the demography of the region.

Civil construction greatly moved the economy of the capital, a sector that ended up losing its strength in 1990, when services started to stand out in an effective way.

Tourism in the capital of Brazil

Tourism was a driving force in Brazil’s capital economy, because a large part of the people who traveled to Brasilia for business or for political reasons ended up taking advantage of all the tourist services of the place, such as a network of hotels, restaurants or cultural tours and activities .

What language is spoken in Brazil? Learn here!

All this is related to the options available to visitors in Brasilia, something that goes from an infrastructure to even elements of culture, such as music, dance, fashion, theater, new media, television and many others.

Because of the way in which Brasília was built, the city has several green spaces for rest and visitation such as gardens and lawns. In addition, the climate of the capital contains excellent conditions for visitors to practice various outdoor activities, as there are several seasons marked with a period without rain.

In addition, the city offers tourists a wide variety of cultural activities, with cultural festivals. So, too, how the cuisine is highlighted, another attraction for tourism in Brasilia.

History of Brasília

Construction of Brasilia.
Construction of Brasilia.

In the last census conducted by the IBGE (2000) a population of 2.05 million was indicated, with 1.96 million in the urban area and around 90 thousand in the rural area. The latest projections (IBGE 2004) indicate that the total population is already about 2.36 million inhabitants. It is located in the Center-West Region.

Its Pilot Plan was made by Lúcio Costa and many of its constructions were designed by the renowned architect Oscar Niemeyer.

Brasília is formed by Asa Norte, Asa Sul, Urban Military Sector, Garages and Workshops Sector, Graphic Industries Sector, Camping Area, Monumental Axis, Esplanade of Ministries, South and North Embassies Sector, Vila Planalto, Granja do Torto, Vila Telebrasília, Sectors of Areas Isolated North and sits the three branches of the Federative Republic of Brazil: Executive, Legislative and Judiciary.

According to the geographer Aldo Paviani, Brasília is constituted by the whole urban area of ​​the Federal District, not only the part registered by UNESCO or the central region, since the city is polinucleada, constituted by the several administrative regions, being one of them the Pilot Plan, so that peripheral regions such as Ceilândia and Gama, among others, are linked to the central ones, especially in the question of employment, and can not be understood as autonomous cities.

Naturalness

Brasiliense is the name given to those born in Brasilia. Candango is the term given to those who live in Brasilia, but was not born in the city. Currently it has also been used by some Brazilians to identify themselves. Of African origin, Candango means “ordinary”, “bad”, and was the denomination that was given to the workers who participated in the construction of Brasilia.

Geography

Brasília is located at 15°50”16’ sul, 47°42”48’ west at a height of 1050 to 1200 meters above sea level. Its relief is mostly flat, presenting some slight ripples. The climate is tropical from alternating altitude and altitude, with a wet and rainy summer and a dry winter.

The average annual temperature is 19ºC, reaching 28ºC in the summer and less than 07ºC in the winter mornings, the coldest night of 2006 was on June 9, 3 and 55 in the morning did 7.8 degrees. However, the temperature can vary in the Federal District, because unfortunately the inmet only has register bases in the region of the pilot plan and airport. it is very normal during the winter and fall months, in the Pico do Roncador, in the Sobradinho mountain, to register negative temperatures, since the peak is the highest within the Federal District. It is more than 2,200 meters above sea level.

The cold also predominates in the rural region and in the marges of rivers and lakes. The relative humidity of the air is approximately 70%, and can reach 30% or less in winter. Fauna predominantly typical of cerrado, in some places of the city it is possible to observe species of gymnosperms (pines and also other types of trees coming from another Brazilian flora.

The city was built strategically in the Central Plateau, a vast region without major geographic accidents in the interior of Brazil. Some reasons for its construction are the displacement of the political center of the country out of the Rio-Sao Paulo axis, incentive to the settlement of the almost empty interior of the country and better strategic and military position of the capital.

Brasília has grown a lot since it was built. The city was designed to hold a maximum of 500,000 inhabitants, and today the Federal District, a quadrilateral in the middle of the plateau determined to house the city, already has more than 2.2 million people, with 1.5 million in satellite cities and 600,000 people in Brasilia. The biggest reason for its overpopulation is the fact that its economy is closely linked to public power.

Brasília is the city with one of the largest per-capita incomes in Brazil. One of the chronic problems caused by all this is that the number of cars in Brasilia tends to increase to levels for which the city has not been projected; numerous traffic jams began to appear in the city, and some places became impassable at rush hour. To try to soften this picture, a subway was built, but due to its limited extent and the city’s own growth, did not significantly alter the traffic problem in the city.

History of the Brazilian capital

Plans for the construction of Brasilia.
Plans for the construction of Brasilia.

The first administrative headquarters of Brazil was São Salvador (now Salvador), where it operated from 1578 to 1763, later transferred to Rio de Janeiro. But from the beginning of the colonization the idea of ​​a capital in the interior was always present. Despite the lack of evidence, the originality of the idea is credible to the Marquis of Pombal (1699-1782), who would then want an impregnable capital, not only for the colony, but for the entire Portuguese kingdom.

The patriots of the Mine Conjuration of 1798 intended to install the capital of the country in the city of São João del Rei, while the Northeastern revolutionaries of 1817 imagined for the capital of the republic that they intended to build, a central city, 30 or 40 leagues from the sea.

In 1808, the Portuguese court took refuge in Rio de Janeiro. In 1809, William Pitt, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom recommended, for security reasons, the construction of a New Lisbon in central Brazil.

From 1813, Hipólito José da Costa, in repeated articles of his Correio Braziliense, called for “the interiorization of the capital of Brazil, close to the slopes of the mighty rivers that go north, south and northeast.”

In 1821 José Bonifácio prepared the draft of the demands of the Brazilian bank for the opinion of the committee in charge of drafting additions to the constitution. These claims are believed to have inspired the publication in 1822 of a book under the title of “Addendum to the draft Constitution to make it applicable to the Kingdom of Brazil,” in which it is suggested “in the center of Brazil, between the springs of the confluents of Paraguay and Amazonas, will be founded the capital of this Kingdom, with the denomination of Brasília “.

Esplanada dos Ministérios buildings in Brasilia.
Esplanada dos Ministérios buildings in Brasilia.

José Bonifácio de Andrada e Silva, as soon as he saw the proclamation of Brazil’s independence, offered to the constituent assembly, which he presided at, a memorial, where he demonstrated the advantages “of a new capital of the Empire in the interior of Brazil, in one of the São Francisco River, which may be called Petropolis or Brasília … “.

In the 1852 Legislature the matter was again vented, arousing the attention of the historian Varnhagen, who ardently defended in the compendium “The question of the maritime capital or inland?”. It was the first practical check in place (1877). He then pointed out as a more appropriate place “for the future capital of the Brazilian Union the triangle formed by the Formosa, Feia and Mestre d’Armas lagoons, from which the waters flow to the Amazon, the São Francisco and the Silver!” It determined, thus, eighty-three years in advance, the point where the new capital would be installed.

With the advent of the republic, the old question returns to the fore, always linked to the defense and development of the country, expressly affirming, in art. 3rd of the republican constitution of 1891; “Floriano Peixoto (second president of the republic) gave an objectivity to the text, constituting itself as a member of the Union, in the Central Plateau of the Republic, an area of ​​14,000 km², which will be timely demarcated to establish the future Federal Capital. the Exploratory Commission of the Central Plateau of Brazil (1892), under the direction of the geographer Luís Cruls, who presented a substantial report, delimiting, in the same area indicated by Varnhagen, a rectangular area that became known as the Cruls Rectangle.

For a number of years there would be little talk of the matter, and indeed, for such a bold plan, at that time, it would be necessary to overcome distances with reasonable railroads to the sea, requiring a technology which the State did not have.

Although the constitution of 1934 provided for the internalization of the federal capital and ordered that “after the studies were completed, they will be presented to the Chamber of Deputies, which will take, without loss of time, the necessary measures for change”, followed the constitutional charter of 1937 and such purposes were forgotten. The same text reappeared in art. 4 of the transitional provisions of the 1946 constitution, motivating the committee headed by engineer Poli Coelho, who recognized the excellence of the site already advocated.

Palácio da Alvorada during construction.
Palácio da Alvorada during construction.

Another committee, constituted in 1953 and presided over (in 1954) by General José Pessoa, completing the studies already carried out, outlined the area of ​​future capital between the rivers Preto and Descoberto, and the parallels 15o30 ‘and 16o03’, covering part of the territory of three municipalities (Planaltina, Luziânia and Formosa), which was approved.

On December 9, 1955, the President of the Republic, Nereu Ramos, through decree n. 386, transforms the Commission of Location of the New Capital of Brazil into a Commission for Planning of Construction and of the Change of the Federal Capital. president, from May to September 1956, Dr. Ernesto Silva, who, on September 19, launched the national contest of the Plano Piloto de Brasilia.

In Jataí, at the beginning of his electoral campaign, Juscelino Kubitschek de Oliveira had been questioned on the subject of the change of the capital by a popular one.

He replied that the change was a constitutional obligation and would take the first steps to its realization. The president of the republic, shortly after his inauguration in January 1956, affirmed his commitment “to lower the dream of Brasilia reality from the plane of dreams”; On March 12, 1957, the Public Tender Committee was installed for the choice of the Pilot Plan of the city of Brasília.

Aerial view of Brasilia and its wing format.
Aerial view of Brasilia and its wing format.

The architect Oscar Niemeyer was chosen to head the Department of Urban Planning and Architecture, and was asked to open a competition to choose the pilot plan; Thus, in March 1957, a judging commission consisting of Sir William Halford, Stano Papadaki, André Sive, Oscar Niemeyer, Luís Hildebrando Horta Barbosa and Paulo Antunes Ribeiro chose the project of the architect Lúcio Costa.

On October 2, 1956, in the open country, President Kubitschek signed the first act on the site of the future capital, then issued the following proclamation: “From this central plateau of this loneliness that soon will become the brain of the high national decisions, the eyes on the tomorrow of my country and I foresee this dawn with unbreakable faith and a confidence without limits in its great destiny. “

In the same year the construction work began. The Núcleo Bandeirante was formed, where the private initiative was allowed greater freedom and was baptized with the name of “Free City”. Especially from the Northeast, Minas Gerais and Goiás, workers began to arrive. The first candangos.