Uma breve história do champanhe: de onde veio o champanhe e como?

Fatos históricos | 31 de dezembro de 2020

Em um cenário de celebração, as mãos de um homem colocam champanhe em um chinelo de cristal, enquanto bolhas flutuam ao fundo, por volta de 1970. (Foto de Tom Kelley / Getty Images)

Quer se trate de um casamento, formatura ou passagem de ano, a bebida de festa para quem gosta de beber é, claro, o primeiro e único champanhe. Onipresente em sua popularidade para festas, Champagne ocupa um lugar especial no coração de muitos que a veem como o fim de tudo para a festa. Mas e se eu lhe disser que seu espumante favorito foi feito por engano e, de fato, este vinho tão especial foi originalmente visto como um grande revés para aqueles que o criaram?

Mais importante, por que essa bebida amada surgiu pela primeira vez em Champagne, França, dentre todos os lugares? Bem, isso é porque Champagne está mais ao norte do que as outras famosas regiões produtoras de vinho de Bordeaux e Borgonha e, portanto, enfrenta temperaturas mais baixas e geadas anteriores. Por isso, as uvas ficam mais ácidas e o processo de fermentação é mais prolongado em relação aos vinhos mais tradicionais. No entanto, a carbonatação resultante levou ao estouro das garrafas e ao lançamento da rolha de forma dramática, se não perigosa.

Você sabia: todo ano, mais de duas dúzias de pessoas são mortas por rolhas de champanhe? Isso torna oficialmente abrir uma garrafa de espumante mais perigoso do que paraquedismo! Lembre-se de nunca apontar a rolha para você ou outras pessoas ao abrir a garrafa, ou você corre o risco de uma catástrofe de Cava.

Dom Pérignon. Wikimedia Commons.

Como você pode imaginar, os produtores de vinho não ficaram tão entusiasmados com este “vinho do diabo”, como o chamaram inicialmente, e viram as bolhas icônicas como uma grande falha. Os produtores de vinho lutaram para corrigir isso, e poderiam ter conseguido se não fosse por muito tempo a sua inimiga, a Inglaterra, que tinha um gosto especial pelo vinho espumante. Por ser considerada uma novidade nas cortes da França, o Marquês de St. Evremond trouxe a bebida para a nobreza inglesa nos anos 1600 e logo se tornou o assunto de Londres. A demanda por champanhe explodiu em Londres e os produtores de vinho correram para fornecer na década de 1660.

Enquanto isso, na França, um monge católico chamado Dom Perignon dividia seu tempo entre a religião e o problema de garrafas de vinho explodindo. Ele se propôs a entender melhor o processo de fermentação e decidiu podar metodicamente as vinhas usando exclusivamente uvas pinot noir, que ele descobriu que causavam menos explosões. A perfeição do processo de fermentação de Perignon, juntamente com invenções inglesas como a rolha de cortiça, tornaram o vinho do diabo muito mais seguro de armazenar e, portanto, mais fácil de transportar. Também podemos agradecer ao único Louis Pasteur (mais famoso por tornar o leite seguro para beber), por fazer grandes avanços no mundo da fermentação ao descobrir a ligação com a acumulação de fermento em líquidos.

No início de 1800, outra inovação veio com Madame Clicquot’s técnica de charada, em que as garrafas eram colocadas de cabeça para baixo inclinadas e regularmente viradas para que o sedimento se acumulasse no gargalo. Quando tiveram certeza de que todo o fermento havia se depositado na rolha, ela foi removida e o champanhe resultante ficou mais claro e mais saboroso do que nunca. Você ainda pode comprar champanhe Clicquot e Dom Perignon até hoje, mas vai custar um bom dinheiro, já que até as garrafas “mais baratas” de Dom Perignon custam mais de cem dólares.

hilippe duc d’Orléans, régent de France (1674-1723). Wikimedia Commons.

Por fim, os produtores de vinho pararam de olhar para o processo de fermentação secundária como algo a ser odiado e agora abraçaram a bebida efervescente com os braços abertos e bolsos pesados. Ao longo dos anos 1700, a popularidade do Champagne cresceu graças ao duque de Orleans, que o usava para alimentar seus dias de fúria. Finalmente, no século 19, o champanhe seria amado por pessoas de fora da classe nobre, à medida que novos avanços tecnológicos o tornaram mais disponível para o público em geral.

Embora você possa ter ouvido o ditado, “se não é de Champagne, não é Champagne”, o fato é que a maioria dos vinhos espumantes nos dias modernos é fabricada sob padrões semelhantes. A verdadeira questão da qualidade, como sempre, está na vinha, nas uvas e no clima. Dito isso, o ditado ainda se mantém, já que o povo da França há muito protege o nome Champagne daqueles que buscam ganhar dinheiro com a bebida de prestígio. Isso foi aparentemente tão importante para o povo da França que o reconhecimento foi incluído no Tratado de Versalhes de 1919, você sabe, aquela coisa que encerrou a Primeira Guerra Mundial e, de acordo com alguns historiadores, até preparou o cenário para a Segunda Guerra Mundial por causa de sua linha dura sanções econômicas contra a Alemanha? Sim, era muito importante para sua cultura e economia.

Allison Stiller batiza o submarino de ataque da classe Virginia de Unidade de Pré-comissionamento (PCU) Mississippi (SSN 782). Wikimedia Commons

Tecnicamente falando, o ditado “somente de Champagne” está correto, pois em 1936 o vinho chamado “Champagne” era legalmente definido como um vinho espumante que vinha exclusivamente da região de Champagne, na França. Todos os outros vinhos com açúcar espumante são considerados “vinhos espumantes”, independentemente de sua qualidade. No entanto, a lei de um país é o encolher de ombros de outro e, portanto, lugares como a Califórnia ainda ostenta seu vinho espumante de prestígio como “California Champagne”, independentemente deste detalhe técnico.

Todas as coisas que o champanhe realmente decolou a partir do século 19, com a bebida não só assumindo como a bebida favorita, mas ascendendo a um ícone de sucesso completo. Desde 1800, os Estados Unidos criaram o hábito de jogar garrafas cheias de champanhe contra seus navios estreantes para desejar boa sorte. Se você prestou atenção aos esportes, também deve ter notado o Brut sendo derramado sobre seus atletas favoritos após uma vitória importante. Desde meados do século 20, em grande parte graças ao Milwaukee Braves que venceu a World Series em 1957, os treinadores derramam champanhe em suas equipes vencedoras para comemorar tanto a alegria quanto o excepcionalismo.

À medida que o final de 2020 se aproxima, as pessoas em todo o mundo optarão por comemorar o Ano Novo com um copo de espumante, tudo graças a um solo especialmente frio há algumas centenas de anos em uma província do norte da França.

Tags: álcool | frança | factos históricos


História da Times Square: a estranha história da evolução da meca turística de Nova York

marcos históricos | 30 de dezembro de 2020

(Byron Company / Wikimedia Commons)

Qualquer pessoa que visite a cidade de Nova York certamente fará seu caminho para Times Square, a meca do turismo na Big Apple. Outrora cenário de devassidão desenfreada, o ponto quente desde então foi higienizado de várias maneiras, mas a Times Square nem sempre foi uma coleção de quarteirões repletos de turistas iluminados por enormes telas de LED.

Começou da parte inferior (de um cavalo)

Originalmente nada mais do que uma fazenda, a área inicialmente hospedou a mansão de John Morin Scott em Manhattan, um general lutando sob o comando de George Washington. Scott usou a área para criar cavalos, um destino que persistiu muito depois que a terra foi vendida para várias imobiliárias por John Jacob Astor.

O que restou da fazenda de Scott veio a ser conhecido como Longacre Square, embora tivesse a forma mais de uma gravata borboleta ou de dois triângulos que se cruzavam do que qualquer outra coisa. Ainda em 1872, a área era conhecida como o centro da indústria de carruagens, mas os cavalos – e seu cheiro – permaneceram até o início do século 20. Manure e todos os tipos de resíduos animais alinhadas nas ruas, mas o empresário alemão Oscar Hammerstein Eu vi algo em Longacre que ninguém mais viu, apenas porque eles não suportaram olhar por muito tempo.

(Biblioteca do Congresso / Wikimedia Commons)

Pavimentando o Grande Caminho Branco

Em 1895, Hammerstein trouxe um novo tipo de negócio para este mundo de cavalos e carruagens: o teatro. Ele desenvolveu o Olympia, um enorme complexo de entretenimento destinado a acender o coração dos amantes da ópera da cidade. Sua engenhosidade inspirou mais patronos das artes a se mudarem, e eles ocuparam todos os lugares de um quarteirão na 42nd Street.

Ao mesmo tempo que os teatros estavam se mudando para a área, assim como os compradores de brownstone, bordéis e pequenos vigaristas. Ainda não era “Slime Square”, mas à medida que a indústria dos cavalos se afastou e a indústria do entretenimento entrou, um elenco de personagens miseráveis ​​se escondeu no meio da cidade que nunca dorme.

(Autor desconhecido / Wikimedia Commons)

Jornais e Ano Novo

Quando Adolph S. Ochs, editor do New York Times, mudou seu jornal para um prédio na 42nd Street, a área rapidamente se tornou conhecida como Times Square. Assim que o primeiro anúncio elétrico apareceu na praça em 1904, ficou claro que todos os olhos logo estariam voltados para esse pequeno pedaço de Manhattan. À medida que mais pessoas e empresas se mudavam para a área, o mesmo acontecia com os anunciantes, com Wrigley’s alugar o maior espaço no mundo na época por US $ 9.000 por mês.

Logo depois, em 1907, as pessoas começaram a se reunir na Times Square para comemorar o ano novo com o queda de uma bola iluminada feito de ferro e madeira que pesava 700 libras. Artkraft Strauss, fabricante de letreiros da Times Square, construiu esta bola e todas as outras por um século depois, e mesmo depois do New York Times saiu da praça em 1914, as comemorações continuaram.

(Jim Evans / Wikimedia Commons)

Slime Square

Depois que o mercado de ações quebrou em 1929, o mundo inteiro afundou em um miasma angustiante, e a cidade de Nova York estava em seu centro. Os residentes mal tinham dinheiro para se alimentar, quanto mais para assistir a um show, muitos dos negócios na praça fecharam para sempre ou pararam até ficarem quase nada. Os teatros fecharam devido ao baixo público e em seu lugar surgiram salões e bordéis.

Junto com esses negócios menos que saborosos vieram inquilinos menos que saborosos, o que levou a um “reputação de licenciosidade. “O crime e os mercados negros floresceram na área e, mesmo depois que a estabilidade do pós-guerra trouxe boas vibrações à cidade, a Times Square permaneceu um bairro cheio de bares decadentes, teatros adultos e um ar de violência que latejava em Manhattan. Na década de 1970, o crime e o uso de drogas eram tão violentos na Times Square que panfletos circularam pela cidade instruindo os turistas a pegar táxis em vez de arriscar a vida caminhando pela área. Pedra rolando referido a Times Square como o “quarteirão mais desprezível da América” ​​e, em 1984, 2.300 crimes ocorreram dentro de um único bloco, a maioria deles crimes como assassinato e estupro.

(Palácio do Planalto / Wikimedia Commons)

Nova York de Giuliani

Numa tentativa de reprimir o crime nos anos 90, o prefeito Rudolph Giuliani varreu a cidade com uma vassoura figurativa, mas poderosa. Ele estava determinado a exterminar o elemento criminoso que se enraizou na Big Apple, especificamente na Times Square, transformando-o em um lugar adequado para famílias, onde turistas de todo o mundo podiam se sentir seguros e as únicas ameaças às suas carteiras eram cadeias de restaurantes e lojas de souvenirs.

Além de fechar lojas de pornografia e fliperamas triple-X e expulsar traficantes e viciados da Times Square, Giuliani multou bares da cidade de Nova York e casas noturnas por não registrar “licenças de cabaré”. Os policiais que trabalhavam distribuíam ingressos para tudo, desde dançar, fumar e luzes de saída mal iluminadas. A limpeza funcionou e a taxa de crimes violentos da cidade caiu 56%.

(Terabass / Wikimedia Commons)

Times Square Hoje

Hoje, a Times Square é a antítese do que pensamos quando pensamos sobre a cidade de Nova York. Não há descolados andando pelas ruas em busca de um novo restaurante underground badalado, os super-ricos da cidade não sujam os sapatos com suas calçadas e quem procura uma experiência “real” de Nova York evita a área como uma praga, mas turistas e empresas acorrem ao local para dar sua própria mordida na Big Apple. Times Square agora traz $ 2,5 bilhões em receitas fiscais para a cidade e US $ 2,3 bilhões para o estado, essencialmente o equivalente a toda a produção econômica de Nashville, Tennessee, e é visitado por 50 milhões de turistas todos os anos.

Marcações: Broadway | marcos históricos | cidade de Nova York


História dos fogos de artifício: Quem inventou os fogos de artifício e por que celebramos com eles?

História Antiga | 29 de dezembro de 2020

(Estilo Mughal / Wikimedia Commons)

Hoje, qualquer um pode pegar fogos de artifício baratos em uma barraca à beira da estrada, mas muito antes de eles serem facilmente acessíveis acessório comemorativo, as pessoas usaram fogos de artifício para afastar os maus espíritos. Hoje, fogos de artifício são um negócio de bilhões de dólares, mas chegar a esse ponto levou milhares de anos.

Fogos de artifício chineses

Começando por aí 200 AC, o povo da China Antiga jogava hastes de bambu em fogueiras para assustar os espíritos malignos, mas eles devem ter achado ineficaz. Após cerca de 400 anos, eles adicionaram pólvora rudimentar à mistura para criar um maior explosão, que funcionou tão bem que tA combinação de brotos de bambu, carvão, enxofre e potássio foi posteriormente refinada em uma espécie de míssil.

Fanáticos por fogos de artifício chineses continuaram a refinar sua técnica adicionando pó de aço e aparas de ferro fundido, o que deu às explosões uma aparência cintilante que se assemelhava mais aos fogos de artifício que conhecemos hoje, e em pouco tempo, os fantasmas foram esquecidos enquanto as pessoas eram distraídas pelas lindas luzes . Esses primeiros fogos de artifício tornaram-se a norma nas celebrações de Ano Novo e casamentos.

(Fonte desconhecida / Wikimedia Commons)

Fogos de artifício na Europa

Não foi até rotas de comércio abertas entre o Oriente e a Europa que países como Grã-Bretanha e Itália foram expostos a fogos de artifício. Quando a pólvora fez seu caminho para o oeste na Idade Média, os europeus começaram a fazer experiências com diferentes misturas para formar vários graus de dispositivos explosivos.

Enquanto os europeus desenvolviam mísseis e foguetes e aumentavam a potência dos mosquetes e canhões, eles também usavam fogos de artifício semelhantes aos remendados com bambu e pólvora para criar celebrações elaboradas, embora sem os esquemas de cores fantásticos que temos hoje. Administradas por “bombeiros”, cerimônias de fogos de artifício eram realizadas após grandes eventos religiosos, celebrações reais ou uma vitória militar.

Auxiliado por assistentes conhecidos como “homens verdes“para os bonés verdes que usavam, os bombeiros deram elaboradas exibições de explosões enquanto os moradores assistiam. Muitas dessas exibições terminaram em tragédia, pois eles ainda não estavam preparados para os efeitos perigosos de seus experimentos.

(chensiyuan / Wikimedia Commons)

Fogos de artifício na América

À medida que a Inglaterra se expandia para as 13 colônias da América, fogos de artifício chegaram ao país incipiente no final do século XVIII. Acredita-se que as primeiras exibições de fogos de artifício americanas foram destinadas a elevar o moral durante a Guerra Revolucionária, e é provável que essas exibições foram combinadas com disparos de canhões e mosquetes nas colônias. O colorido poder de fogo era tão amado por fundador John Adams que ele esperava que a independência americana, declarada pela primeira vez em 1776, fosse celebrada com belas explosões para Anos por vir.

Os fogos de artifício que conhecemos e amamos hoje realmente não começaram a se tornar uma coisa até o século 19, quando o povo italiano começou a experimentar combinar metal com explosivos para criar apresentações elaboradas e bonitas que maravilharam os espectadores. Por volta de 1830, duas operações familiares começaram a vender fogos de artifício – Zambelli Fireworks e Fireworks de Grucci—e começasse competindo um contra o outro em competições de concha simples julgadas por design, som, tamanho e cor. Eles descobriram como fazer formas e padrões com suas explosões coloridas, mudando completamente a maneira como as pessoas pensavam sobre fogos de artifício. No final de 1800, as famílias Grucci e Zambelli se mudaram para a América, trazendo suas exibições extravagantes com eles.

(AF Bradley / Wikimedia Commons)

Poopers de festa

Não muito depois que as primeiras famílias de fogos de artifício chegaram à América, a Sociedade para a Supressão de Ruído Desnecessário foi fundada para fazer lobby por restrições aos fogos de artifício que fariam John Adams chorar. Graças a eles, cada estado aprovou leis sobre como, onde e quando fogos de artifício podem ser usados, o que meio que estraga a diversão dos explosivos, mas provavelmente salva algumas vidas ou algo assim.

Seu sucesso na regulamentação de fogos de artifício inspirou o SOUN para perseguir regulamentos de crianças brincando perto de hospitais e até mesmo como as pessoas podem andar alto (sério). Apoiado por Mark Twain, o grupo conquistou uma série de vitórias que funcionaram por um tempo para deixar as cidades um pouco mais tranquilas, mas quando os carros Fizeram seu caminho nas ruas, o grupo rapidamente perdeu força. Algumas coisas não podem ser abafadas, ao que parece.

(Jamsinux / Saint Philip’s Fireworks Factory / Wikimedia Commons)

Fale sobre o Pyrotecnologianics

Viciados em fogos de artifício de verdade nunca pararam de procurar maneiras de tornar suas explosões comemorativas mais emocionantes e mais segura. O que antes era aceso com um fósforo ou um sinalizador, agora é acionado por um aplicativo em um computador e, muito provavelmente, alguém desenvolveu um aplicativo para isso.

Marcações: história antiga | fogos de artifício | História recente


Culturas que não comemoram o dia de ano novo em 1º de janeiro

Fatos históricos | 28 de dezembro de 2020

Os artistas participam do tradicional desfile de ano novo chinês de dragão e bateria. (Joel Saget / AFP via Getty Images)

À medida que se aproxima a meia-noite de 31 de dezembro, os olhos da maior parte do mundo estão voltados para o relógio, contagem decrescente os momentos finais do ano. Nem todos os países comemora o ano novo em 1º de janeiro, no entanto.

ano Novo Chinês

O calendário chinês é baseado no ano lunar, não no ano solar do mundo ocidental calendário gregorianoe ano Novo Chinês cai na segunda lua nova após o solstício de inverno. Isso significa que a data muda de ano para ano, mas a celebração, que normalmente ocorre em fevereiro, é tão cheia de comida deliciosa e belas paisagens como lanternas brilhantes e dragões dançantes coloridos que as culturas não-chinesas ao redor do mundo se divertiram nos últimos anos.

(Chanticleer Garden / Wikimedia Commons)

Meskerem

As nações africanas da Etiópia e da Eritreia celebram o ano novo em 11 de setembro do nosso calendário, que é conhecido por eles como Meskerem. Corresponde ao fim do período chuvoso, que é sempre motivo de comemoração, assim como o data em que a Rainha de Sabá voltou à Etiópia depois de sua viagem a Jerusalém para se encontrar com o Rei Salomão em 980 AEC, então há muitos motivos para festejar. O dia é tipicamente celebrado com uma manhã na igreja seguida de uma farta refeição e uma tarde de colheita e troca de margaridas, que florescem em setembro na região.

(Chamal N / Wikimedia Commons)

Aluth Avurudda

No Sri Lanka, as boas-vindas ao ano novo, conhecido como Aluth Avurudda, são celebradas pelo povo cingalês nos dias 13 ou 14 de abril, dependendo da chegada da lua nova. Para comemorar o início do ano, que também marca o início da primavera, os cingaleses fervem uma panela de barro cheia de leite até que transborde como símbolo de prosperidade. O dia também é um momento para se reunir com amigos e familiares e festejar com doces e bananas.

(Arief Rahman Saan / Wikimedia Commons)

Nyepi

Bali é conhecido por suas praias gloriosas e vida noturna agitada, então pode parecer um ótimo lugar para comemorar o Ano Novo, mas Bali segue seu próprio calendário, então é melhor você poder esperar até março. Não espere nada excitante também. O ano novo balinês, chamado Nyepi, é conhecido como o Dia do Silêncio. Em vez de festas, danças e banquetes, Nyepi é um dia para meditação e autorreflexão. Ninguém vai trabalhar ou viajar, as televisões são mantidas desligadas e a maioria das pessoas jejua durante o dia.

(Vahid Sarabi / Wikimedia Commons)

Nowruz

Nowruz, o Ano Novo iraniano, é um dos feriados mais antigos da humanidade, com mais de 5.000 anos. Acontece no equinócio da primavera, quando as famílias se reúnem para comer uma refeição de sete pratos, colorir ovos e acender velas uns para os outros, mas no dia anterior, os iranianos tradicionalmente param nos túmulos de seus parentes falecidos para limpar e cuidar do sites. Eles podem até plantar flores e árvores em homenagem aos mortos. Em tempos mais recentes, os iranianos aproveitaram o Nowruz como uma oportunidade para a limpeza da primavera, literalmente livrando-se do antigo para dar lugar ao novo.

(Gilabrand / Wikimedia Commons)

Rosh Hashanah

No calendário hebraico, Rosh Hashanah é o início do novo ano. A data varia ligeiramente de ano para ano, mas geralmente cai no final de setembro ou início de outubro e homenageia o fim dos sete dias que, de acordo com o livro do Gênesis, foram necessários para criar os céus e a Terra. Embora as celebrações sejam principalmente reflexivas e pensativas por natureza, os celebrantes podem comer maçãs e mel, pois esses itens simbolizam a prosperidade.

(Sam Sith / Wikimedia Commons)

Chol Chnam Thmey

Celebração do ano novo do Camboja, Chol Chnam Thmey, tem três dias de duração, começando em 13 de abril e coincidindo com o início do calendário solar tradicional usado em lugares como Tailândia, Laos, Nepal e partes da Índia e Bangladesh. Normalmente marca o fim da colheita, mas ocorre antes do início da estação das chuvas, tornando rara a época em que os agricultores podem relaxar e desfrutar dos frutos de seu trabalho. Em vez de uma festa selvagem de três dias, os cambojanos comemoram Chol Chnam Thmey visitando templos, praticando cerimônias rituais de purificação e passando momentos calmos com suas famílias.

(Bradshaw Art / Wikimedia Commons)

Murador Reveillon

O povo Murador, uma tribo aborígine extinta da Austrália Ocidental, deu as boas-vindas ao início do ano novo com celebrações realizadas em 30 de outubro. Hoje, o evento é celebrado por apenas uma pequena comunidade, mas o que resta da cultura Murador nos diz que O dia foi marcado por passar tempo com os amigos, dando graças pelo ano anterior e perdoando os inimigos.

(Rartat / Wikimedia Commons)

Tsagaan Sar

A celebração do ano novo na Mongólia, Tsagaan Sar, começa em 16 de fevereiro e dura 15 dias impressionantes enquanto os mongóis consertam as pontas soltas do ano anterior: perdoar inimigos, renovar amizades perdidas, consertar disputas, pagar dívidas e reconectar-se com membros da família. O tempo de Tsagaan Sar, que se traduz em “Lua Branca”, é baseado no calendário lunisolar da Mongólia e corresponde do primeiro ao terceiro dia do primeiro mês do calendário lunar.

(Vitt Guziy / Wikimedia Commons)

Velho ano novo

A Igreja Ortodoxa Oriental – que afirma ter populações proeminentes na Rússia, Ucrânia, Sérvia e Macedônia, para citar alguns – desviou um olhar cético para o calendário gregoriano, disse “Nah” e permaneceu com o Juliano. Como um resultado, o ano novo (ou o nosso antigo) começa no dia 14 de janeiro. Para os seguidores da Igreja Ortodoxa, a celebração do ano novo é um momento de festejar, beber, cantar e dançar.

(Cultura Coreana e Serviço de Informação / Wikimedia Commons)

Ano novo coreano

Seollal é um festival de três dias na Coreia do Sul que começa, como o Ano Novo Chinês, na segunda lua nova após o solstício de inverno. Os sul-coreanos comemoram vestindo roupas tradicionais coloridas, realizando rituais de chá, preparando comida tradicional, jogando jogos antigos e orando por boa sorte no ano que vem.

(Fadi El Benni / Wikimedia Commons)

Ano novo islâmico

De acordo com a tradição, o primeiro ano islâmico começou em 622 EC, quando o Profeta Muhammad viajou de Meca para Medina. O dia, que é chamado de Ra’s as-Sanah al-Hijriyah e cuja data varia de ano para ano com base no ciclo lunar, é honrado com jejum, oração e meditando.

Marcações: cultura | fatos históricos | Ano Novo


O calendário gregoriano: por que os meses e os dias são assim?

História Medieval | 27 de dezembro de 2020

(Biblioteca del Vaticano / Wikimedia Commons)

1º de janeiro marca o início de um novo ano, pelo menos de acordo com o calendário gregoriano. Temos usado este sistema de calendário por mais de 400 anos, desde que o Papa Gregório XIII configurou um sistema para corrigir os erros do sistema de calendário anterior de Júlio César. A mudança do Juliano para o Gregoriano teve alguns soluços, no entanto, e mesmo hoje, nem todas as partes do mundo contam seus dias com isso.

O calendário juliano

A humanidade usou vários sistemas diferentes para rastrear os dias, mas por volta de 40 aC, um astrônomo chamado Sosigenes colaborou com Imperador romano Júlio César para desenvolver um novo calendário revolucionário. Veja o que fizemos lá? Porque os anos são medidos por revoluções ao redor do Sol? Pegue?

De qualquer forma, Sosigenes e César dividiu o ano, qual Sosigenes havia calculado em 365,25 dias, em 12 meses, mas eles foram desligados por 11 minutos e 14 segundos por ano. Por volta de 1500, aqueles 11 minutos e 14 segundos haviam se acumulado e o calendário ficou fora de sincronia com o ano solar. Os solstícios e os equinócios estavam todos cancelados, o que significava que dias religiosos importantes, o mais importante na Páscoa, também estavam fora de sintonia.

(Autor desconhecido / Wikimedia Commons)

O Calendário Gregoriano

Este foi um problema tão grande que o Papa Gregório XIII reformou o calendário em 1582. Cinco anos antes, ele encarregou duas das maiores mentes da época, o astrônomo Christopher Clavius ​​e o médico Aloysius Lilius, de observar o movimento da Terra em torno do Sol e calcule a melhor divisão de dias. Em 4 de outubro de 1582, o papa Gregório emitiu um decreto papal para introduzir seu novo sistema de calendário, que basicamente se resumia a apagar 10 dias. Eles simplesmente pularam direto para 15 de outubro no dia seguinte; 5 a 14 de outubro simplesmente nunca aconteceu aquele ano.

Ainda havia um problema, entretanto. TA órbita da Terra em torno do Sol foi calculada mais precisamente para 365,24219 dias, e arredondar as coisas foi o que os colocou nessa confusão em primeiro lugar, então algo tinha que ser feito a respeito do restante. Você pode reconhecer isso como a história original do Dia de Salto, mas provavelmente não sabe sobre o Segundo de Salto. Nem mesmo um dia adicional no final de fevereiro a cada quatro anos foi suficiente para corrigir o calendário, então eles tiveram que voltar atrás e remover o dia bissexto nos anos centenários que não podem ser divididos por 400. Por exemplo, taqui foi um ano bissexto em 2000, mas não em 1900, 1800 ou 1700. Pode parecer complicado, mas adiciona o segundo extra necessário para garantir que a Páscoa não termine em outubro.

Como parte da reforma do calendário do Papa Gregório, o primeiro dia do ano também foi alterado. Antes, era celebrado na Festa da Anunciação, também chamada de Dia da Senhora porque correspondia a uma festa em homenagem à Virgem Maria, que caía em 25 de março. Por um breve período durante a Idade Média, o primeiro dia do ano novo era comemorado no dia de Natal, mas o papa Gregório acabou com todo aquele absurdo e decretou que era 1º de janeiro.

(Autor desconhecido / Wikimedia Commons)

Nem todos a bordo

Não há dúvida de que o calendário gregoriano é mais preciso do que seu antecessor, mas tornou-se uma questão estranhamente política quente. Por ter sido decretado por um papa, foi imediatamente aceito por países católicos como Itália e Espanha, mas ooutras nações europeias inicialmente suspeitaram que o calendário era algum tipo de trama tortuosa da Igreja Católica para fazer … alguma coisa. Como um resultado, A Alemanha não fez a mudança até 1700, e levou a Grã-Bretanha e os Estados Unidos mais 52 anos. Benjamin Franklin até brincou sobre a perda dos 11 dias extras, que foi de 3 a 14 de setembro daquele ano para a Grã-Bretanha e a América, “É agradável para um homem idoso poder ir para a cama em 2 de setembro e não ter que levante-se até 14 de setembro. “

Atualmente, quase todos os países seguem o calendário gregoriano, com algumas exceções notáveis. Enquanto a maior parte do mundo dá as boas-vindas ao novo ano em 1º de janeiro, o Irã comemora em 20 de março, a Índia em 8 de abril e China, Coréia e Vietnã em 8 de fevereiro. O Ano Novo Judaico cai entre 2 e 4 de outubro.

Marcações: calendário | europa medieval | Ano Novo


what-language-is-spoken-in-brazil

What language is spoken in Brazil?

Brazil is responsible not only for a territory of South America, but also for a large part of the continent’s linguistics: but Portuguese is not the only language ​​spoken in Brazil!

Despite being the main language, in Brazil even Spanish and Japanese coexist along with Dutch, Roman dialect and other 274 indigenous languages ​​spoken by 305 ethnic groups, according to the 2010 census.

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With wealth and culture, it is not surprising that São Paulo, for example, a city with a greater number of Portuguese speakers, is also a house of speakers of Arabic, Italian, Chinese, Hebrew, among other languages.

What language does Brazil speak?

What language does brazil speak?

Portuguese. According to historical data, a Portuguese language first touched the Brazilian soil when Pedro Álvares Cabral arrived in Brazil in 1500.

The rest, as they say, is history. When Cabral arrived, there being 6 to 10 million years of living today, we call 1300 different languages. At present, the economy is only 170 000, speak 181 languages. In turn, missionaries may have studied the Tupi languages ​​of cost tribes, their main purpose being to exercise greater influence and control under the Indians. This was a continuation of a series of the indigenous languages ​​of the Marquis of Pombal in 1775.

Brazilian Portuguese is different from European thanks to the remnants of African and Amerindian languages. There are more than 205 million Portuguese speakers in Brazil, compared to 10 million in Portugal.

What is the official language of Brazil?

In any case, Portuguese is the official language of Brazil, the language that the government uses to communicate and the language in newspapers and schools. Even so, despite a medium not yet portrayed, Brazil has countless regional accents, and in some regions even dialects.

Find out the best way to learn Portuguese for free!

Curiosity: by law, the Brazilian Language of Signals – Libras – should always be free in their vehicles.

History of the Portuguese language in Brazil

History of the Portuguese language in Brazil
Disembarkation of Pedro Álvares Cabral in Porto Seguro in the year 1500. Oil on canvas by Oscar Pereira da Silva (1922).

Brazil was “discovered” by Portugal in the year 1500, and since then, with the great presence of the Portuguese in the Brazilian territories, the Portuguese language has taken root, while the indigenous languages ​​have gradually disappeared. One of them, perhaps the one that most influenced the current Portuguese spoken in Brazil, was Tupinambá or Tupi-guarani, spoken by the Indians who inhabited the coast. This language was first used as a general language in the colony, alongside Portuguese, because the Jesuit priests who came to catechize the Indians, studied and ended up spreading the language.

In the year of 1757 a Real Provision prohibited the use of the Tupi, this time, in which the Portuguese already supplanted this language, being him, the Portuguese, with the title of official language. In 1759 the Jesuits were expelled, and from then on the Portuguese language definitively became the official language of Brazil.

Brazilian portuguese: Indigenous and African heritage

Brazilian portuguese: Indigenous and African heritage

The Portuguese language, spoken in Brazil, nevertheless inherited a vast vocabulary of indigenous languages, especially as regards the denominations of fauna, flora, and other words related to nature – as it also happens with brazilian recipes.

The Portuguese brought many slaves captured in Africa to work in the Brazilian lands, and they came speaking several dialects, which contributed to the construction of our language. Much of what we have today was inherited from the African languages ​​as well as cultural items that came with the slaves and settled here.

In this way, the Portuguese language spoken in Brazil, was distancing itself from the Portuguese language spoken in Portugal, because while here the language received the influences of the Indians (natives) and of the African immigrants, in Portugal the language received French influence (mainly due to culture, education, etc., which was then prestigious in France.)

When the royal family came to Brazil between 1808 and 1821, the two languages ​​again “approached”, because due to the large number of Portuguese in the big cities, the language was again suffering their influence and resembling the language- mom.

Brazilian Portuguese was also influenced by Spanish, Dutch and other European countries that invaded Brazil after independence (1822). This explains why some differences in vocabulary and / or accent exist between some regions of Brazil.

With the influence of Romanticism (artistic-literary movement that happened at the beginning of the 19th century), the literature produced in Brazil intensified, and the Portuguese language spoken in Brazil was becoming more and more a new form, differentiating itself even more from the language Portuguese spoken in Portugal. Individualism and nationalism were awakened in the country through literature, in addition to the political reality that drove the country to distance itself and to differentiate even more from Portugal.

The normalization of language was as consecrated by the modernist movement (1922), which brought as criticism the excessive appreciation still given to European culture, and motivated the people to value their own language as “Brazilian.”

Recently we had an orthographic reform, implemented in 2009, based on an agreement made between the countries that have Portuguese as their official language, and some writing rules that differentiated the norm, were modified, leaving it unified. Orality, however, continues to maintain considerable distinctions.

Brazil and its many languages

Brazil and its many languages
Map of the co-official languages existing in Brazil.

In Brazil, one speaks Portuguese, right? Yes, this is the language spoken by most of the people who live here. However, speakers of indigenous languages, immigration, frontiers and signs live in our territory. Because of the relations between their speakers, these languages ​​are influenced and modified.

We are among the most linguistically diverse countries in the world. It is estimated that about 250 languages ​​are spoken in the country, including indigenous languages, immigration, signs and Afro-Brazilian communities.

According to the 2010 Demographic Census survey of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE), 274 languages ​​are spoken by Indians from 305 different ethnic groups. However, this result was considered inflated to include names of ethnicities or even languages ​​that are no longer spoken. “We only have an estimate of the number of languages ​​spoken in Brazil. Regarding indigenous languages, Census data are larger than those that researchers often reproduce, which is around 180 indigenous languages. In addition, research shows that there are 56 languages ​​spoken by descendants of immigrants living in Brazil for at least three generations, “says Rosângela Morello, general coordinator of the Institute for Research and Development in Linguistic Policy (Ipol).

With so much diversity, Brazil has its linguistic peculiarities, since the languages ​​are historical objects and are always related to its speakers. The majority of the Brazilian population is monolingual, that is, it speaks only Portuguese, which is their mother tongue and also the lingua franca, official and national language of the country. However, it is not possible to say that we are a monolingual country, since we have multilingual scenarios, that is, population groups that speak different mother tongues, but are able to communicate in another language. There are also groups that, besides their mother tongue, use other languages ​​for communication, such as in São Gabriel da Cachoeira (AM), where speakers of four official languages ​​live together: Portuguese, Nheengatu, Toucan and Baniua.

“The three possibilities – monolingualism, multilingualism and plurilingualism – are intertwined in Brazil, but we can say that Brazil is a multilingual country that includes spaces where there is multilingualism. In turn, the country has a single official and national language, which is the Portuguese language, “analyzes Eduardo Guimarães, professor of Semantics at the Department of Linguistics of the Institute of Language Studies (IEL) at the University of Campinas. that other languages ​​are spoken, but it is usually the Portuguese that always predominates in the language space of the cities. Language teaching mechanisms are decisive elements in the distribution and functioning of languages.

In Spite of the enormous linguistic diversity in Brazil, the relation of the speakers and their languages ​​is unequal in comparison to the Portuguese language. The dominant perception is that only one language is spoken here. Considering the importance of knowing this diversity and preserving so many languages ​​with high risk of disappearance, it was created, through Federal Decree 7.387 / 2010, establishing the National Inventory of Linguistic Diversity (INDL), an instrument for inserting languages ​​as a reference cultural heritage, administered by the Institute of National Historical and Artistic Heritage (Iphan).

“The population contingent that speaks other languages ​​is numerically little expressive in relation to the number of Portuguese speakers. This imbalance, especially of the indigenous languages ​​and the languages ​​of immigration, makes Portuguese a kind of threat to the preservation of these other languages, since Portuguese is the vehicle for communication excellence in all fields of our society. This leads to discouragement and the gradual abandonment of the use of mother tongues, “says Marcus Vinicius Carvalho Garcia, coordinator of INDL.

Hegemony x diversity

Hegemony x diversity
RUGENDAS, GUERRILHA, 1835

The history of the country shows that the imposition of the Portuguese language was adopted as a strategy of occupation and unification of a country with such an extensive territory. Even before the arrival of the Portuguese, Brazil was already a multilingual country. Estimates suggest that 1,175 languages ​​were spoken by Indians of different ethnic groups in the Brazilian territory in 1500. For more than two centuries, the most widely spoken language in Brazil was the general Tupi-based nheengatu language used for communication between indigenous, Portuguese and African countries. The Portuguese language was used by a small part of the population, linked to the colonial administration. In 1757, a decree of the Marquis of Pombal prohibited the general language.

“Without a doubt, the Portuguese colonization project had a fundamental effect, which was the production of a territorial unit. And this went through the implantation of Portuguese as an official and national language throughout the entire Brazilian territory, “says Professor Eduardo Guimarães.

Similar process occurred with the African languages. For nearly three centuries, more than 4 million Africans who spoke about 200 different languages, such as Yoruba, Ewe-fon and Kimbundu, were brought into slavery in Brazil. The dismantling of the social and family ties of these people was a strategy to prevent communication in their native languages ​​and, with this, to avoid acts of resistance to slavery. As a consequence, African languages ​​survived, albeit precariously, only in the religious rituals of African matrices and in rural remnant communities of quilombos such as Cafundo, located in Salto de Pirapora (SP).

Also, the immigration languages, spoken by European and Asian immigrants who came to Brazil from the end of the 19th century, were heavily repressed by Getulio Vargas’ nationalist policy during Estado Novo (1937-1945). This picture intensified during World War II (1939-1945), when Brazil stood against the Axis countries, made up of Germany, Italy and Japan. The Brazilian government banned German, Italian, Japanese – and even Polish and Ukrainians – speak their tongues.

“The politics of linguistic homogenization affected the linguistic variety of Brazil. People realized that they could not learn or speak a language other than Portuguese. As a consequence, the majority of the population is unaware of our enormous linguistic diversity, which can generate prejudice. Language is a promoter of bonds, identities, memories, affections and knowledge. It is through the language that the world is known and values ​​are transmitted. Today, we see indigenous groups that have lost their tongues struggling to reestablish them because they are part of their stories, “notes Rosângela.

Pomerano: only in Brazil

The Pomeranian was the official language of Pomerania, a region between present-day Germany and Poland. With the end of World War II, most of the territory of Pomerania was annexed by Poland and, as a consequence, the Pomeranian language practically disappeared in Europe. Brazil is the only country in the world where Pomeranians are still regularly spoken of because of the arrival of thousands of immigrants in the 19th century. Currently, the Pomeranian language is spoken in five Brazilian states: Espírito Santo, Santa Catarina, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondônia and Minas Gerais.

In Espírito Santo, where nearly half of the 300,000 Pomeranians live, the Pomeranian School Education Program (Proepo) was created in 2005, which serves municipal schools in five municipalities. The pedagogical project of the program values ​​the Pomeranian language as a factor of ethnic identity and preservation of culture, through oral and written language, dances, religion and other traditions, promoting the self-esteem of the language-speaking students. They are literate in Portuguese, but the Pomeranian is a discipline of the curriculum.

Libras: the Brazilian language of signs

The Brazilian language of signs (Libras) was recognized as the second official language of Brazil in 2002. Each country presents

their own sign language, as well as presenting their spoken languages. In Brazil, besides Libras, there is the Urubu-Ka’apor sign language, of the indigenous ethnic group of the same name, in Maranhão.

The deaf child communicates with the world in a visual-gestural way, that is, his experiences are totally visual and his communication is through sign language, which is developed naturally in contact with other deaf people.

“Libras is the language that deaf children fully access visually, making it their primary language. Studies indicate that literacy children in their first language perform better in literacy in a second language. Thus, it is recommended to use letter-writing in sign language followed by literacy in the Portuguese language, “says Ronice Müller de Quadros, a professor at the Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC) and author of the book Education for the Deaf: Language Acquisition (Artmed, 1997). According to her, Portuguese can not be a factor of exclusion of deaf people, since it is present in the various situations of everyday life, because it is the official language of the country.

Late access to sign language can compromise the development of language and, consequently, all stages of school learning. For this reason, it is advisable for a deaf child to study in a bilingual school, which is structured for the teaching of Libras as the language of instruction, and Portuguese as a second language. “The bilingual school is organized based on the Libras and appropriately to the visual experience. Already the common schools are organized based on the Portuguese language, which compromises the schooling of the deaf child “, says Ronice.

At the National Institute of Deaf Education (Ines), the Brazilian language of signs is the language of instruction, that is, all classes occur with a focus on it. The Portuguese language is taught in written form, as the second language of the students. Located in the city of Rio de Janeiro, the Ines was the first school for the deaf in the country, inaugurated in 1856 by the emperor D. Pedro II. Because it is linked to the Ministry of Education (MEC), it serves free of charge about 500 students, from Early Childhood Education (from newborns to 3 years old) to High School.

“By learning sign language, the child begins to mean the world around him. A baby with a few months already can understand and reproduce the signs of the Libras as long as stimulated for this. In this way, he can have his cognitive development appropriate to the stages of development that any child passes through. With a well-structured language, this child can learn any other language, as long as the pedagogical tools are adequate for them to achieve such learning, “says Amanda do Prado Ribeiro, director of the Basic Education Department of Ines. According to her, the team of Ines teachers is composed of deaf and hearing, who train in the course of Libras to communicate with the students.

Brazilian Border languages

Brazilian Border languages

With a land border that extends for more than 15 thousand kilometers, Brazil is limited to ten countries in South America. Despite its proximity, language is an obstacle, since Spanish is the official language of most South American countries. In order to shorten linguistic distances and promote integration between different cultures, the Intercultural Border Schools Program (Peif), an initiative of the Ministry of Education (MEC), was initiated in 2004.

Because of its strategic location, in Mato Grosso do Sul, almost on the border between Brazil and Paraguay, the João Brembatti Calvoso State School participates in Peif. Only one street separates the cities of Ponta Porã and Pedro Juan Caballero. The school serves 1,950 students from Elementary to High School. Of these, 80% live in Paraguay, where the official languages ​​are Spanish and Guarani.

At least once a week, classes are taught in Spanish and Guarani, with the exchange of Brazilian and Paraguayan teachers. School activities, which also address cultural issues such as music and dance, are conducted in all three languages.

The integration among students increased after joining Peif. “Many students have improved their income. Before, what was identified as learning difficulties in some students was proven to be ashamed to express themselves in their own language, afraid of being labeled as Paraguayan. With the project, these students began to feel valued. We have even left a trilingual dictionary available to everyone for consultation, “says director Eliana Aparecida Araújo Fernandes.

Another difference is that the school had to change its pedagogical project, currently based on research projects. At the beginning of the year, during the diagnostic evaluation, teachers consult students to find out what subjects they want to learn. Students give ideas that will be discussed and chosen by themselves. Thus, students and teachers assemble an interdisciplinary conceptual map indicating the topics of interest, defining a problem that will be addressed throughout the year, with room for adding other questions.

Language as a factor of integration

Language as a factor of integration

Brazil is the destination of many immigrants, which makes it necessary to promote public policies to integrate students into the new linguistic and cultural reality. At the Eduardo Prado State School, located in the center of the city of São Paulo, about 10% of the students are immigrants. 101 are immigrants, 71 Bolivians, 14 Paraguayans, 6 Angolans, 3 Peruvians, 2 Argentines, 2 Haitians, 2 Bangladeshi (Bangladeshi), 1 Portuguese, 1 Chinese and 1 Namibian. In addition, about 70% of Brazilian students are children of Bolivian immigrants.

As the school does not have a specific program for the teaching of the Portuguese language, the immigrant students learn from their Brazilian colleagues. “We have partnered with the Migrant Support Center (Cami), giving space for their teachers to teach Portuguese classes, but the presence of interested students is very timid. The Bolivian community, for example, is very reserved for various issues and there is prejudice on the part of Brazilian students in relation to Bolivians, especially in the second cycle of Elementary School, “says coordinator Jailson Miranda Monte.

In order to increase the integration of students and their families into the school community, in order to value their cultures and languages ​​of origin, the school promotes cultural fairs and parent meetings, but they have low adherence. However, as immigrant learners learn to speak the Portuguese language, they begin to have greater interaction with others. “I realize that many students feel a conflict between the culture they receive from their parents and the Brazilian culture, which often generates conflicts. By learning the Portuguese language, they feel more integrated and participate more in everyday school life, “says Jailson.

Portuguese language teaching for foreigners or descendants by region

Portuguese language teaching for foreigners or descendants by region

Brazilian North

Location: Pacaraima (RR)

Federal University of Roraima (UFRR): Portuguese to Foreigners of the Nucleus of Studies of Foreign Languages (Nucele).

Audience: Venezuelans and others nationalities, such as students Haiti and Africa in exchange.

Contact: +55 (95) 3621-3124

Location: Pacaraima (RR)

State University of Roraima (UERR): Portuguese to Foreigners.

Audience: Venezuelans who live in Pacaraima. And the Portuguese for Foreigners in UFRR/ NUCELE who serves Venezuelans and another nationalities as students Haiti and Africa in exchange.

Contact: +55 (95) 3592-1385

Brazilian Northeast

Location: Jaboatão dos Guararapes (PE)

MOOC Portuguese Language: happens in the platform MiríadaX, coordinated by Prof. João Mattar, Vice-President of the Association Brazilian of Educational Technology (ABT), with tutoring by Roberta Nery.

Audience: several countries, like Portugal, Wales, Colombia and Argentina.

Contactjoaomattar@gmail.com or robertanery_piscis@yahoo.com.br

Brazilian Midwest

Location: Campus Bela Vista (MT)

Federal Institute of Mato Grosso – Bela Vista Campus: Language Teaching Portuguese for foreigners.

Audience: Haitians (adults).

Organizing teacher: Cleide Ester Oliveira.

Contactcleide.oliveira@blv.ifmt.edu.br

Location: Brasilia (DF)

Portuguese course for countries, which meets several nationalities.

Contactcontato@icepebrasilia.com.br

Brazilian Southeast

Location: Sorocaba (SP)

Quilombinho Cultural Center: promotes the recovery of self-esteem of descendants of enslaved through the valorisation and diffusion of Afro-Brazilian culture.

Audience: Teaching Students Fundamental in the period out-of-school It is necessary to

to institutions formal and regular education. Age range: between 7 and 15 years, subdivided into the following groups: 7 to 9 years, 10 to 11 years, 12 to 13 years, 14 to 15 years.

Contact: +55 (15) 3018-8090 or (15) 3233-7801

Location: São Paulo (SP)

Portuguese course for Foreign Trade Support Center Immigrant (Cami).

Contactwebsite.

Location: Mario Campos (MG)

Specialized (AEE) to students deaf people aged 13 to 16 years. These students are served in the classroom of appeal. When they dominate the Libras, begin to learn the Portuguese as a second language. When they know neither Libras nor Portuguese, the two simultaneously.

Brazilian South

Location: Camboriú (SC)

IFC Camboriú: Portuguese course for Haitian immigrants residing in Camboriú, Balneário Camboriú and region. There are 30 places divided in two groups: 15 students for the class of beginners and 15 for the intermediates. Classes will be held on Tuesdays (beginners) and on Wednesdays (intermediaries) from 7 pm to 9 pm.

The course is free and part of the extension project “Inclusion by the Portuguese: Language course Portuguese for immigrants Haitians from the perspective of interculturality”.

Contactinclusaopeloportugues@ifc-camboriu.edu.br

Brazil-life-expectancy

Brazil life expectancy: social improvements

The life expectancy of the Brazilian reached the highest average in history. Projection released this Wednesday (25/7) by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) shows that the longevity has reached 76 years. A jump of 22 years compared to the registered in the 1960s, for example, when the average reached 54. Brazil reached the mark of 208.4 million inhabitants in 2018, according to IBGE estimate released on Wednesday ( 24/7).

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What Language is spoken in Brazil? Learn here!

One of the trends that most attracted IBGE’s attention is the slowing of population growth. In 2018, the country arrived. 208.4 million people. Increase of 0.38% – 800 thousand people – in relation to the contingent of 2017, when it was 207.6 million. From 2016 to 2017, growth had been 1.6 million people, double that from the passage from 2017 to 2018.

IBGE estimates that the Brazilian population will grow for the next 29 years, until 2047, when it is expected to reach 233.2 million. In the following years, the population will fall to 228.3 million in 2060. Reduced fertility, late pregnancy and a decline in the ratio of the elderly to the young are among the reasons.

By 2060, the population over 60 years old will more than double in size and reach 32.1% of the total population. Currently, it represents 13.44%. By 2060, a quarter (25%) of the population will be over 65 – the expectation of cida will be 81 years. The opposite occurs in the population of children up to 14 years of age, which currently represents 21.3% of the total and in 2060 will represent 14.7%.

What will be the life expectancy of the Brazilians in 2040?

What will be the life expectancy of the Brazilians in 2040?

How old is an average person? This response varies drastically according to where she lives. While the population of Japan, the world’s longest living place, reaches 83, the inhabitants of the Central African Republic do not survive for more than five decades.

“Considering that life expectancy is a sensitive indicator of health conditions, we face brutal differences according to each region,” says Dr. Rafael Lozano of the University of Washington in the United States.

The researcher is one of the authors of the work that evaluated parameters and statistics country by country and presented how the life expectancy should evolve until 2040. The tendency is that the Spaniards, currently the rooms placed, surpass the Japanese in the lead of the ranking in the near future .

“From the data, it is possible that politicians and public agents devise strategies to establish improvements that directly benefit the people,” Lozano believes.

While the first positions are occupied by Europeans and Asians, the last places are with Africa. The difference in life expectancy across continents is over 30 years.

Brazil life expectancy: in the middle of the table

Brazil life expectancy in 2040
(Illustration: André Moscatelli/SAÚDE é Vital)

In 81st place Brazil are behind El Salvador and Venezuela and ahead of Lithuania and Romania. The life expectancy here should increase three years and three months until 2040.

The study calculated the best and worst case scenarios for each country. If it works out and Brazil evolves a lot, we can reach 82.6 years in 2040 – an incredible leap of more than seven years. Now, in case everything goes wrong, the tendency is to retraction to 74.9 years, three months less than we enjoy today.

Searching for the best scenario for life expectancy

There is no other way: for people to celebrate more and more birthdays, it is necessary to invest heavily in education and health (eating healthy brazilian recipes should help too). “It is also necessary to have organized and effective responses to some events of great impact, such as demographic shocks, epidemics or hunger,” exemplifies Lozano.

Authorities still need to keep an eye on chronic diseases that are booming, such as hypertension and diabetes. “They will represent the main risks in some cases,” says the expert.

The 10 biggest causes of death in Brazil in 2016

  1. Infarction
  2. Stroke (stroke)
  3. Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias
  4. Pneumonia
  5. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  6. Violence
  7. Diabetes
  8. Traffic-accidents
  9. Chronic Kidney Disease
  10. Lung and tracheal cancer

What will be the biggest causes of death in Brazil in 2040

  1. Infarction
  2. Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias
  3. Diabetes
  4. Stroke (stroke)
  5. Pneumonia
  6. Chronic Kidney Disease
  7. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  8. Hypertension
  9. Prostate cancer
  10. Colorectal cancer
what-is-the-capital-of-brazil

What is the capital of Brazil?

Brasília, the capital of Brazil, counts on important characteristics not only because of all political issues, because it is the space of great discussions and governmental decisions, but also because it is a space that has a super interesting space organization, a totally planned place and organized for certain purposes.

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With this, its history, economy and tourism aspects reflect well the complexity and importance of Capital in the national scenario.

Brasília, the official capital of Brazil

Located in the Central Brazilian Plateau, in the Center-West region of the country, specifically in the Federal District, the capital of Brazil is located in a region that for many years was occupied until the nationalist projects of expansion of occupations in the territory began to create development of those regions of the country that still needed infrastructure and investments, as well as people occupying these regions and helping in development.

In 1960, the Federal Capital of Brazil, Brasília was inaugurated by the then president Juscelino Kubitschek. The construction of all Brasília took about three and a half years and it was built from a modern urban system, different from the architecture patterns of Brazil at the time.

Economy in the Brazilian capital

The particularities of the capital not only stop in its modern urban project, but also extends in every economic context. As a good example of this, the GDP, Gross Domestic Product of the city of Brasília is six times larger than that of Maranhão, which demonstrates all the economic and social development of the Brazilian capital.

Brazil life expectancy.

Thus, as HDI, the Human Development Index of Brasília, which is high, demonstrating that its population presents a good life condition.

Trade in the capital

As early as its inauguration year, in 1960, Brasília already had a well-developed commercial sector, especially in comparison to the rest of the country. This development is also related to the development of the capital of Brazil and the whole region, with the existence of roads and railways, which made production more dynamic and the demography of the region.

Civil construction greatly moved the economy of the capital, a sector that ended up losing its strength in 1990, when services started to stand out in an effective way.

Tourism in the capital of Brazil

Tourism was a driving force in Brazil’s capital economy, because a large part of the people who traveled to Brasilia for business or for political reasons ended up taking advantage of all the tourist services of the place, such as a network of hotels, restaurants or cultural tours and activities .

What language is spoken in Brazil? Learn here!

All this is related to the options available to visitors in Brasilia, something that goes from an infrastructure to even elements of culture, such as music, dance, fashion, theater, new media, television and many others.

Because of the way in which Brasília was built, the city has several green spaces for rest and visitation such as gardens and lawns. In addition, the climate of the capital contains excellent conditions for visitors to practice various outdoor activities, as there are several seasons marked with a period without rain.

In addition, the city offers tourists a wide variety of cultural activities, with cultural festivals. So, too, how the cuisine is highlighted, another attraction for tourism in Brasilia.

History of Brasília

Construction of Brasilia.
Construction of Brasilia.

In the last census conducted by the IBGE (2000) a population of 2.05 million was indicated, with 1.96 million in the urban area and around 90 thousand in the rural area. The latest projections (IBGE 2004) indicate that the total population is already about 2.36 million inhabitants. It is located in the Center-West Region.

Its Pilot Plan was made by Lúcio Costa and many of its constructions were designed by the renowned architect Oscar Niemeyer.

Brasília is formed by Asa Norte, Asa Sul, Urban Military Sector, Garages and Workshops Sector, Graphic Industries Sector, Camping Area, Monumental Axis, Esplanade of Ministries, South and North Embassies Sector, Vila Planalto, Granja do Torto, Vila Telebrasília, Sectors of Areas Isolated North and sits the three branches of the Federative Republic of Brazil: Executive, Legislative and Judiciary.

According to the geographer Aldo Paviani, Brasília is constituted by the whole urban area of ​​the Federal District, not only the part registered by UNESCO or the central region, since the city is polinucleada, constituted by the several administrative regions, being one of them the Pilot Plan, so that peripheral regions such as Ceilândia and Gama, among others, are linked to the central ones, especially in the question of employment, and can not be understood as autonomous cities.

Naturalness

Brasiliense is the name given to those born in Brasilia. Candango is the term given to those who live in Brasilia, but was not born in the city. Currently it has also been used by some Brazilians to identify themselves. Of African origin, Candango means “ordinary”, “bad”, and was the denomination that was given to the workers who participated in the construction of Brasilia.

Geography

Brasília is located at 15°50”16’ sul, 47°42”48’ west at a height of 1050 to 1200 meters above sea level. Its relief is mostly flat, presenting some slight ripples. The climate is tropical from alternating altitude and altitude, with a wet and rainy summer and a dry winter.

The average annual temperature is 19ºC, reaching 28ºC in the summer and less than 07ºC in the winter mornings, the coldest night of 2006 was on June 9, 3 and 55 in the morning did 7.8 degrees. However, the temperature can vary in the Federal District, because unfortunately the inmet only has register bases in the region of the pilot plan and airport. it is very normal during the winter and fall months, in the Pico do Roncador, in the Sobradinho mountain, to register negative temperatures, since the peak is the highest within the Federal District. It is more than 2,200 meters above sea level.

The cold also predominates in the rural region and in the marges of rivers and lakes. The relative humidity of the air is approximately 70%, and can reach 30% or less in winter. Fauna predominantly typical of cerrado, in some places of the city it is possible to observe species of gymnosperms (pines and also other types of trees coming from another Brazilian flora.

The city was built strategically in the Central Plateau, a vast region without major geographic accidents in the interior of Brazil. Some reasons for its construction are the displacement of the political center of the country out of the Rio-Sao Paulo axis, incentive to the settlement of the almost empty interior of the country and better strategic and military position of the capital.

Brasília has grown a lot since it was built. The city was designed to hold a maximum of 500,000 inhabitants, and today the Federal District, a quadrilateral in the middle of the plateau determined to house the city, already has more than 2.2 million people, with 1.5 million in satellite cities and 600,000 people in Brasilia. The biggest reason for its overpopulation is the fact that its economy is closely linked to public power.

Brasília is the city with one of the largest per-capita incomes in Brazil. One of the chronic problems caused by all this is that the number of cars in Brasilia tends to increase to levels for which the city has not been projected; numerous traffic jams began to appear in the city, and some places became impassable at rush hour. To try to soften this picture, a subway was built, but due to its limited extent and the city’s own growth, did not significantly alter the traffic problem in the city.

History of the Brazilian capital

Plans for the construction of Brasilia.
Plans for the construction of Brasilia.

The first administrative headquarters of Brazil was São Salvador (now Salvador), where it operated from 1578 to 1763, later transferred to Rio de Janeiro. But from the beginning of the colonization the idea of ​​a capital in the interior was always present. Despite the lack of evidence, the originality of the idea is credible to the Marquis of Pombal (1699-1782), who would then want an impregnable capital, not only for the colony, but for the entire Portuguese kingdom.

The patriots of the Mine Conjuration of 1798 intended to install the capital of the country in the city of São João del Rei, while the Northeastern revolutionaries of 1817 imagined for the capital of the republic that they intended to build, a central city, 30 or 40 leagues from the sea.

In 1808, the Portuguese court took refuge in Rio de Janeiro. In 1809, William Pitt, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom recommended, for security reasons, the construction of a New Lisbon in central Brazil.

From 1813, Hipólito José da Costa, in repeated articles of his Correio Braziliense, called for “the interiorization of the capital of Brazil, close to the slopes of the mighty rivers that go north, south and northeast.”

In 1821 José Bonifácio prepared the draft of the demands of the Brazilian bank for the opinion of the committee in charge of drafting additions to the constitution. These claims are believed to have inspired the publication in 1822 of a book under the title of “Addendum to the draft Constitution to make it applicable to the Kingdom of Brazil,” in which it is suggested “in the center of Brazil, between the springs of the confluents of Paraguay and Amazonas, will be founded the capital of this Kingdom, with the denomination of Brasília “.

Esplanada dos Ministérios buildings in Brasilia.
Esplanada dos Ministérios buildings in Brasilia.

José Bonifácio de Andrada e Silva, as soon as he saw the proclamation of Brazil’s independence, offered to the constituent assembly, which he presided at, a memorial, where he demonstrated the advantages “of a new capital of the Empire in the interior of Brazil, in one of the São Francisco River, which may be called Petropolis or Brasília … “.

In the 1852 Legislature the matter was again vented, arousing the attention of the historian Varnhagen, who ardently defended in the compendium “The question of the maritime capital or inland?”. It was the first practical check in place (1877). He then pointed out as a more appropriate place “for the future capital of the Brazilian Union the triangle formed by the Formosa, Feia and Mestre d’Armas lagoons, from which the waters flow to the Amazon, the São Francisco and the Silver!” It determined, thus, eighty-three years in advance, the point where the new capital would be installed.

With the advent of the republic, the old question returns to the fore, always linked to the defense and development of the country, expressly affirming, in art. 3rd of the republican constitution of 1891; “Floriano Peixoto (second president of the republic) gave an objectivity to the text, constituting itself as a member of the Union, in the Central Plateau of the Republic, an area of ​​14,000 km², which will be timely demarcated to establish the future Federal Capital. the Exploratory Commission of the Central Plateau of Brazil (1892), under the direction of the geographer Luís Cruls, who presented a substantial report, delimiting, in the same area indicated by Varnhagen, a rectangular area that became known as the Cruls Rectangle.

For a number of years there would be little talk of the matter, and indeed, for such a bold plan, at that time, it would be necessary to overcome distances with reasonable railroads to the sea, requiring a technology which the State did not have.

Although the constitution of 1934 provided for the internalization of the federal capital and ordered that “after the studies were completed, they will be presented to the Chamber of Deputies, which will take, without loss of time, the necessary measures for change”, followed the constitutional charter of 1937 and such purposes were forgotten. The same text reappeared in art. 4 of the transitional provisions of the 1946 constitution, motivating the committee headed by engineer Poli Coelho, who recognized the excellence of the site already advocated.

Palácio da Alvorada during construction.
Palácio da Alvorada during construction.

Another committee, constituted in 1953 and presided over (in 1954) by General José Pessoa, completing the studies already carried out, outlined the area of ​​future capital between the rivers Preto and Descoberto, and the parallels 15o30 ‘and 16o03’, covering part of the territory of three municipalities (Planaltina, Luziânia and Formosa), which was approved.

On December 9, 1955, the President of the Republic, Nereu Ramos, through decree n. 386, transforms the Commission of Location of the New Capital of Brazil into a Commission for Planning of Construction and of the Change of the Federal Capital. president, from May to September 1956, Dr. Ernesto Silva, who, on September 19, launched the national contest of the Plano Piloto de Brasilia.

In Jataí, at the beginning of his electoral campaign, Juscelino Kubitschek de Oliveira had been questioned on the subject of the change of the capital by a popular one.

He replied that the change was a constitutional obligation and would take the first steps to its realization. The president of the republic, shortly after his inauguration in January 1956, affirmed his commitment “to lower the dream of Brasilia reality from the plane of dreams”; On March 12, 1957, the Public Tender Committee was installed for the choice of the Pilot Plan of the city of Brasília.

Aerial view of Brasilia and its wing format.
Aerial view of Brasilia and its wing format.

The architect Oscar Niemeyer was chosen to head the Department of Urban Planning and Architecture, and was asked to open a competition to choose the pilot plan; Thus, in March 1957, a judging commission consisting of Sir William Halford, Stano Papadaki, André Sive, Oscar Niemeyer, Luís Hildebrando Horta Barbosa and Paulo Antunes Ribeiro chose the project of the architect Lúcio Costa.

On October 2, 1956, in the open country, President Kubitschek signed the first act on the site of the future capital, then issued the following proclamation: “From this central plateau of this loneliness that soon will become the brain of the high national decisions, the eyes on the tomorrow of my country and I foresee this dawn with unbreakable faith and a confidence without limits in its great destiny. “

In the same year the construction work began. The Núcleo Bandeirante was formed, where the private initiative was allowed greater freedom and was baptized with the name of “Free City”. Especially from the Northeast, Minas Gerais and Goiás, workers began to arrive. The first candangos.

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Pão de Queijo Recipe – Brazilian Cheese Bread

learning portuguese

Pão de Queijo (Brazilian Cheese Bread) is a typical Brazilina recipe. Coming originally from the State of Minas Gerais, Pão de Queijo has become the most popular snacks in Brazil.

The recipe came to be on the 18th century, during slavery practiced in the Brazilian farms from Minas Gerais.

To serve the afternoon coffee (an adaptation of the British afternoon tea called ‘café da tarde’ in the Portuguese Language), the cooks made a lot of breads. However, as manioc flower was way easier to get than wheat flower, the cooks were experimenting with manioc flower and by mixing it with chees the Pão de Queijo recipe was born.

Pão de Queijo é uma receita típica brasileira. Original do estado de Minas Gerais, é um dos snacks preferidos dos brasileiros e uma verdadeira paixão nacional.

Sua origem data do século VIII, durante o período de escravidão no Brasil nas fazendas mineiras.

Para servir o café da tarde (uma adaptação do chá da tarde britânico), as cozinheiras preparavam pão. Porém, como a farinha de mandioca era muito abundante à época em comparação com a farinha de trigo, elas começaram a experimentar com a receita, misturando farinha de mandioca com queijo. Assim surgiu o pão de queijo.

What language is spoken in Brazil?

Ingredients for the Pão de Queijo

Pão de Queijo ingredients (Brazilian Cheese Bread Ingredients)
  • 500 ml of milk
  • 250 ml of filtered water
  • 80 ml of soy oil
  • 500 grams of sweet powder
  • Grinded cheese (parmesan, brazilian cheese or other of your choice)
  • 3 eggs

Time to prepare: 25 minutes
This recipe is good for: 30 small cheese breads

  • 2 copos americanos leite
  • 1 copo americano de água
  • 1/3 de copo americano de óleo
  • 500g de polvilho doce
  • Queijo ralado
  • 3 ovos

Tempo de preparo: 25 minutos
Rendimento: 30 porções pequenas

What is the capital of Brazil?

Instructions on How to Prepare the Pão de Queijo Recipe

Freezing and preserving cheese breads
  1. In a pan, mix milk, water, soy oil and boil it;
  2. In a bowl, mix the sweet powder and the salt;
  3. Now, mix the boiled milk, water and soy oil with the sweet powder and salt mixture. Use a spoon to do it, because it’s hot;
  4. Wait until it cools down and mix the grinded cheese and the eggs;
  5. Use your hands to mix everything togheter until the dough reaches a glue-like texture;
  6. Make small balls of this dough using your hands;
  7. Pre-heat the oven to 500 °F;
  8. Bake it in the same temperature for 25 minutes or until it gets golden brown;
  9. Just serve and enjoy it.

Brazilian eating habits and life expectancy.

  1. Ferva o leite com água e óleo;
  2. Misture o polvilho doce e o sal em uma vasilha separada;
  3. Jogue o leite fervido com água e óleo na vasilha com polvilho e sal, misturando bem com uma colher;
  4. Espere a mistura esfriar e jogue o queijo ralado e os ovos;
  5. Misture a massa com as mãos. Misture bem, até virar uma espécie de cola;
  6. Faça bolinhas com as mãos, do tamanho que preferir;
  7. Pré-aqueça o forno em 260 ºC
  8. Asse em forno bem quente até dourar;
  9. Sirva e se delicie.

Tips for the Pão de Queijo

Enjoying brazilian cheese bread
  • It’s best served with coffee;
  • It goes well with butter and cream cheese;
  • Use a ziplock to freeze do dough (already ball-shaped) and bake it later. You can freeze it up to 3 months!
free-courses-and-lessons-of-portuguese

Best way to learn portuguese: 22 free online and in-person courses

Wanna learn Portuguese language or are you learning Portuguese already and want to improve your language skills faster? Try a free online or an in-person Portuguese language courses is the best way to learn Portuguese and improve your proficiency in no time.

In this post, we bring you 22 options of free courses for you to learn or improve your Portuguese, both European and Brazilian dialects. There are courses for almost all the levels of proficiency (even for those who still wonder what language is spoken in Brazil, for instance) so you can find the best way for you to learn Portuguese. Enjoy!

Best way to learn Portuguese online for free

Learn portuguese for cheap

Here are the options for free Portuguese language lessons and resources online. There are 16 free quality courses for you to learn online. Just to choose the level you want to start and go!

Brazilian Portuguese lessons for beginners

Brazilian portuguese lessons for beginners

1. PortuguesePod101

PortuguesePod101 has very innovative approach to the Portuguese learning process. Teaching ins done through a series of episodes and each one comes with a PDF file with the dialog, so you can follow it along while listening.

2. BrazilianPodClass

Want a more in-depth look on the Brazilian Portuguese language structure? Then checkout BrazilianPodClass, an amazing podcast that try to covers all the major grammar questions students might have during their learning process.

3. Semantica

Semantica uses video to teach students Portuguese. The episodes are created to work like a TV show and each one of them tells a story with language situations and explanations that effortlessly blend into the story. It’s really fun.

4. Duolingo

Duolingo is a well-know platform that uses flash cards and gamification to learn new languages. Portuguese language is also on the platform and it is perfect for beginners.

5. italki

As you might see later, italk has also resources for European Portuguese, but it is a solid way to learn Brazilian Portuguese too. You might have to pay for additional features, but it’s worth it.

European Portuguese lessons for beginners

European portuguese lessons for beginners

6. Memrise

Memrise has lots of free courses for European Portuguese and it’s one of the best ways to learn Portuguese for beginners.

7. RTP Zigzag

Zigzag is a section of the Portugal’s public broadcasting networking (RTP) focused on educational content. The videos are short and cover a variety of things such as history, geography and lots of fun facts.

8. italki (European Portuguese)

italki it’s a great way to learn Portuguese by speaking to natives. European Portuguese might be difficult for some learners, but this website can help.

9. Learn Portuguese with Rafa

Learn Portuguese with Rafa is a website focused on beginners. It also highlights some key differences between European Portuguese and Brazilian Portuguese (and there are many!).

Intermediate Portuguese lessons (European and Brazilian Portuguese)

Intermediate portuguese lessons for all dialects

10. Practice Portuguese

Do you think you have an intermediate Portuguese level but still have problems with listening comprehension? Practice Portuguese is the best way to improve this skill.

11. NHK World Radio Japão

I know, right? How a radio from Japan will help me learn Portuguese? Well, you’d be surprised to know that Japan has one of the biggest comnunities of Brazilians outside Brazil. And NHK World Radio Japão only broadcasts in Portuguese so you can practice your listening skills.

12. Português no Mundo

Português no Mundo is a free podcast about something you might also be interesting as a learner of a new language: traveling. The podcast is really fun and a great way to improve your listening while you’re on the go.

13. Cinem(ação)

Who doesn’t like movies, right? So why not improve your Portuguese Language while also learning about Brazilian Cinema as well? Cinem(ação) is a great way to do so.

14. VisioKids

VisioKids can be good way to improve your listening comprehension while learning interesting facts about Science and Nature (specially for kids).

15. Recontando

Recontando is a funny news website from Brazil specially made for children. The language used to tell the stories are simplified and it might be useful for those on the intermediate level.

16. Instituto da Cooperação e da Língua (Instituto Camões)

The Instituto da Cooperação e da Língua (Language and Cooperation Institute) is an initiative from the Government of Portugal that is a real treasure for Portuguese Learners. That are plenty of books for free to help you improve your language and learn more about Portuguese history and literature.

Advanced Portuguese lessons

Advanced portuguese lessons for all dialects

17. CBTV Now

CBTV Now it’s a free TV channel from Brazil intended to Brazilians living abroad. It has shows about Brazilian culture and lifestyle and is recommended for advanced learners improve even more their level of proficiency.

18. Conta-me Tudo

Conta-me Tudo (Tell Me Everything) brings funny amazing stories and also deep discussions that require advanced Portuguese to be understood.

20. Universidade Regional de Blumenau (FURB)

The Universidade Regional de Blumenau (Regional University of Blumenau) is a Brazilian university that offers a free Portuguese Language online course – it even gives the students a certificate!

In-person Portuguese classes for free

in-person portuguese classes

Thinking about moving abroad to learn Portuguese? Well, you might even do it for free! Here are some Portuguese Language classes for free:

21. Português para Estrangeiros da USP

The University of São Paulo (USP) has a program called Projeto Redigir, geared towards foreigners interested in learning Portuguese. The course is completely free and is given by the university students and professors once a week.

22. Português para Estrangeiros da UFSCar

UFSCar’s (Federal University of São Carlos) Language Institute has a discipline where the students from the Language Degree course can teach Portuguese as a foreign language and foreigners can have a chance to learn the idiom.

Now you can’t use money as an excuse for not start learning Portuguese. Choose the best way to learn portuguese for your time and schedule and have fun!

Learn more expressions in Portuguese!

Learned how to say thank you in Portuguese? What about learn more expressions to improve your portuguese?

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